ESL writing: comparisons and contrasts


Comparisons and contrasts





Words commonly used to express comparison include:

  • like 
  • similar 
  • as
  • same 
  • in the same way 
  • too
  • both 
  • most important 
  • have in common
  • the same as s
  • imilarly 
  • as well as
Words commonly used to express contrast include:

  • although 
  • yet 
  • whereas
  • however 
  • but 
  • while
  • differ 
  • instead 
  • unless
  • unlike 
  • on the contrary 
  • contrary to
  • even 
  • though 
  • on the other hand 
  • the reverse
  • despite / in spite of
  • in contrast (to) / in comparison



 X is considerably   
a great deal
(very) much
rather
somewhat
a little
slightly
scarcely
hardly
only just
smaller
bigger
cheaper     
etc
than...
 X is exactly
precisely
just
virtually
practically
more or less
almost
nearly
approximately      
about
     the same as ...
 X is not      exactly
      entirely  
      quite
     the same as ...
 X is totally
completely 
entirely
quite
 different from Y. X is not quite so/as big
 expensive

 etc
as...
 X and Y are    different
   dissimilar
  in every way/respect.
    totally
    completely
    entirely
    quite
  different.

Examples:
Comparison Structure Words and Phrases
  • London is the financial heart of Great Britain. Similarly, Istanbul is the center of banking and finance in Turkey.
  • A dog park has a fence where people and their dogs can play together. Similarly, a dog run is a small fenced area that is often located within an existing park.
  • The streets in Istanbul are similar to the ones in Athens.
  • New York and Tokyo are similar to each other in several aspects.
  • Athens and Istanbul are similar in that they are both densely populated.
  • There are some striking similarities between the two cities.
  • London is the cultural capital of Great Britain. Likewise, Istanbul is the center of music, culture and art in Turkey.
  • Istanbul and Athens are equally noisy.
  • Not only Tokyoites but also New Yorkers dress fashionably.
  • Both New York and Tokyo have many international restaurants.
  • The two cities have both positive and negative features.
  • Both PCs and Apple Macs can use Microsoft office.
  • London is the financial heart of Great Britain. Istanbul is an important center of banking and finance, too.
  • Tokyo is a center of fashion, and New York is, too.
  • Laser printers and inkjet printers require good quality paper to work well.
  • The subway system in New York is the same as the one in Tokyo.
  • Hand soap and liquid soap both work in the same way.
  • Olive oil works in the same way as some anti-inflammatory drugs.
  • The streets in Istanbul and Athens are alike.
  • Like Tokyo, New York is an important center of fashion.
  • Like a PC, a Mac is easy to use.
  • An LCD TV is like an LCD monitor.
  • My sister, like my cousin, wears glasses.
  • Like my cousin, my sister wears glasses.
  • My sister, just like my cousin, wears glasses.
  • Just like my cousin, my sister wears glasses.
  • Tokyo is densely populated and noisy just like New York.
  • Athens is densely populated and noisy just as Istanbul is.
  • Istanbul has traffic problems just as Athens does.
  • The new $1000 Canon 5D is comparable to $9000 professional video equipment in performance.
Contrast Structure Words and Phrases

  • Dogs eat a mix of raw and cooked food, but cats mostly eat raw food.
  • Tahiti is a common destination for “extreme” sport enthusiasts. Yet, Laos is actually a more suitable location.
  • Rock music is often very fast; however, folk music is usually very slow.
  • Although men are often considered better at “hard” science subjects like physics and 
  • mathematics, women often graduate with higher grade point averages.
  • Although Havana is a city which is popular with tourists, Rio is much more popular.
  • Even though men in China smoke a higher number of cigarettes, they have lower levels of cancer than European males.
  • Though the Pc and the Mac can both perform the same functions, the Mac is much faster.
  • Flash discs have no moving parts unlike hard drives.
  • Unlike cats, dogs are social or group animals.
  • Facilities provided in prison hospitals are not like those provided in regular hospitals.
  • Facilities provided in state universities are not the same as those provided in private universities.
  • Eastern and Western students are dissimilar in their expectations of university.
  • Istanbul is completely different from Berlin.
  • A laptop computer is different from a desktop computer because it is smaller and more compact.
  • Istanbul and Berlin are different in terms of population and location.
  • Istanbul and Berlin differ in that the former is a big city while the latter is small.
  • There is a big difference between the applicants in terms of experience.
  • In contrast to John, who is a liberal, Bill is a conservative.
  • Microsoft Office costs about £100 in contrast to Open Office which is free.
  • Contrary to popular belief, large dogs are less aggressive than small dogs.
  • London Heathrow airport is very busy compared to / with Berlin International.
  • A laser printer is cheap to run compared to / with an inkjet.
  • In comparison with other European countries, house prices in the UK are very high.
  • He was a loud friendly man. In comparison, his brother was rather shy.
  • Some people like to exercise indoors, while / whereas others prefer to exercise outdoors.
  • While / Whereas going on holiday to a beach resort offers many opportunities for relaxation and sport, a city break offers many cultural activities.In Rugby most injuries are related to the neck; on the other hand, football injuries are most often related to the feet and legs.




No comments:

Post a Comment