Video: City and Guilds ISESOL B2 Communicator Level ESL

City & Guilds ISESOL B2 Communicator Level - First Class Pass

City & Guilds ISESOL B2 Communicator Level Test 2 - Pass

City & Guilds ISESOL B2 Communicator Level Test 1 - Fail

ESL Topics: Educational system in Russia

Education System in Russia
Russia has a long-standing tradition in high-quality education for all citizens. It probably has also one of the best mass-eduction systems in the world producing a literacy rate (98%) exceeding most Western European countries. Education is split into a compulsory Basic Education, and ongoing Higher Education.

Compulsory Basic Education
Basic general education lasts for nine years. Graduates of this level may continue their education at senior high school to receive secondary general education. They may also enter an initial vocational school or non-university level higher education institutions. Initial vocational schools include PTU (Professional'no-technicheskoe uchilische) which offer one-and-a-half to two years' purely professional education and a Professional'ny Litsei which offer joint professional and secondary general education for three to four years and skilled workers' training at different levels. Non-university level higher education institutions also offer three- to four-year professional and secondary general education and two-year vocational training for holders of the School Leaving Certificate. Secondary general education on the basis of basic general education continues for two years and ends when students are 17-18. Graduates from a secondary general school may apply for entrance to a higher education institution. Secondary education leads to the award of the Attestat o Srednem (Polnom) Obshchem Obrasovanii (Certificate of Secondary Complete General Education).

Higher Education
Higher education is provided by public and non-public (non-State) accredited higher education institutions. There are two levels of higher education:
Basic higher education (4 years) leading to the Bakalavr's degree, the first university level degree. This is equivalent to the B.Sc. degree in the US or Western Europe
Postgraduate higher education (5-6 years or more). After two years, students are entitled to receive a Magistr's degree. This is equivalent to a Master's Degree (M.Sc, M.A.) in the US or Western Europe. After a Master's degree, students can continue to study towards a doctoral degree: Kandidat Nauk degree (the first level, equivalent to Ph.D.) and Doktor Nauk degree (the second, highest level, equivalent to Professor).

The public educational system in Russia includes pre-schools, general schools, specialised secondary and higher education. So-called pre-schools are kindergartens in fact. Children there learn reading, writing and maths. But pre-school education isn't compulsory - children can get it at home. Compulsory education is for children from 6(7) to 17 years of age. The main branch in the system of education is the general schools which prepare the younger generation for life and work. There are various types of schools: general secondary schools, schools specialising in a certain subject, high schools, gymnasiums and so on. The term of study in a general secondary school is 11 years and consists of primary, middle and upper stages. At the middle stage of a secondary school children learn the basic laws of nature and society at the lessons of history, algebra, literature, physics and many others. After 9th form pupils have to sit for examinations. Also they have a choice between entering the 10th grade of a general secondary school or going to professional school. Pupils who finish the general secondary school, receive a secondary education certificate, giving them the right to enter any higher educational establishment. One has to study in the institute for 5 years. Higher educational institutions train students in one or several specialisations.

ESL Writing: Useful phrase - formal letters

Useful Phrases for writing formal letters

a) Writing formal letters generally:

Dear Sir
Dear Madam
Dear Sir/Madam
Dear Mr Brown
Dear Ms Jones

Reason for writing:
I am writing in response to your article/advertisement/letter
I am writing with regard to your article/advertisement/letter
I am writing regarding your article/advertisement/letter
Ending the letter:
I look forward to receiving your reply
I look forward to your reply
I look to hearing from you
I am, yours faithfully (if you don't know the name of the person you are writing to)
I am, yours sincerely (if you know the name of the person you are writing to)
Yours faithfully
Yours sincerely

b) Writing formal letters to complain:

Reason for writing:
I am writing in order to complain about
I am writing to complain about
Introducing the complaint:
In the first place
First of all
My first complaint is
The first problem is
The first thing I would like to draw your attention to is
My first concern is
Introducing further complaints:
In the second place
Not only …….but also
In addition
In addition to this
Added to this
…….was also unacceptable
Demanding action:
I suggest that you replace the item
I therefore suggest that I be given a full refund
I would be grateful if my money was refunded
I would be grateful if you could give me a full refund

Ending the letter:
I look forward to hearing from you
I look forward to receiving a full refund
I look forward to receiving a replacement
I look forward to receiving your explanation

c) Writing formal letters to make suggestions:

Reason for writing:
I am writing to suggest
I am writing to arrange
I am writing to offer suggestions
I am writing make arrangements
Making first suggestion:
My first suggestion is
First of all I suggest
I would like to suggest

Making further suggestions:
Another possibility is
A further possibility is
I further suggest
I would further suggest
Offering a choice:
Would you therefore mind choosing between ….?
You might choose either ……. Or

d) Writing formal letters to request information

Reason for writing:
I am writing to receive further information about
I am writing to enquire about
I am writing to receive more detailed information about
I am writing to receive further details about

Requesting first piece of information:
The first thing I would like to know is
First of all I would like to know
I wonder if you would mind telling me first of all ….?
Requesting further information:
Could you also tell me….?
Could you also inform me ….?
Would you also mind informing me ….?
Would you also mind telling me ….?
Do you know ….?
I would also like to know if
I would also like to know whether
I hope you might also let me know about …

Thanking for information:
I would like to thank you in advance for this information
Thanking you in advance for this information
Thanking you in advance

e) Writing formal letters to give information:

Reason for writing:
I am writing to inform you about
I am writing to provide you with information about
I am writing to let you know that
Providing first point:
The first thing I would like to inform you of is
The first thing I would like to tell you is
The first thing I wish to inform you of is
I would like to begin by informing you
Providing further points:
I would also like to let you know that
I would also like to inform you that
You might also find the following information useful
It might also be useful for you to know that
Another piece of information that might be useful

Ending the letter:
If you require further information, please do not hesitate to as
If I can be of further assistance, please do not hesitate to ask
I will willingly provide further information on request
I am at your disposal should you require further information
I am at your disposal should you need further assistance
Please do not hesitate to ask should you require further information

f) Writing formal letters to request permission

Reason for writing:
I am writing to ask permission for
I I am writing to ask permission to
am writing to request permission to
I am writing to request permission for
I am writing to ask if I might

Making first request:
Firstly I wonder if you would
First of all I wonder whether you would mind
The first request I would like you to consider is

Making further requests:
I would be grateful if you would also consider
I wonder if it might be possible for me to
I would also like to request permission for
I would also like to request permission to

Thanking for permission
Many thanks for kindly considering my requests
Thank you for considering my requests

ESL Writing: What does abbreviation mean?

LMAO - Laughing My As* Off
LOL - Laughing Out Loud
AFAIK - As Far As I Know
AFK - Away From Keyboard
ASAP - As Soon As Possible
BAS - Big A$$ Smile
BBL - Be Back Later
BBN - Bye Bye Now
BBS - Be Back Soon
BEG - Big Evil Grin
BF - Boyfriend
BIBO - Beer In, Beer Out
BRB - Be Right Back
BTW - By The Way
BWL - Bursting With Laughter
C&G - Chuckle and Grin
CICO - Coffee In, Coffee Out
CID - Crying In Disgrace
CNP - Continued (in my) Next Post
CP - Chat Post(a chat message)
CRBT - Crying Real Big Tears
CSG - Chuckle Snicker Grin
CYA - See You (Seeya)
CYAL8R - See You Later (Seeyalata)
DLTBBB - Don't Let The Bed Bugs Bite
EG - Evil Grin
EMSG - Email Message
FC - Fingers Crossed
FTBOMH - From The Bottom Of My Heart
FYI - For Your Information
FWIW - For What It's Worth
GAL - Get A Life
GF - Girlfriend
GFN - Gone For Now
GMBA - Giggling My Butt Off
GMTA - Great Minds Think Alike
GTSY - Glad To See You
H&K - Hug and Kiss
HABU - Have A Better 'Un
HAGN - Have A Good Night
HAGU - Have A Good 'Un
HHIS - Hanging Head in Shame
HUB - Head Up Butt
IAE - In Any Event
IC - I See
IGP - I Gotta Pee
IMNSHO - In My Not So Humble Opinion
IMO - In My Opinion
IMCO - In My Considered Opinion
IMHO - In My Humble Opinion
IOW - In Other Words
IRL - In Real Life
IWALU - I Will Always Love You
JMO - Just My Opinion
JTLYK - Just To Let You Know
KIT - Keep In Touch
KOC - Kiss On Cheek
KOL - Kiss On Lips
L8R - Later
L8R G8R - Later 'Gater
LHM - Lord Help Me
LHO - Laughing Head Off
LHU - Lord Help Us
LMAO - Laughing My A$$ Off
LMSO - Laughing My Socks Off
LOL - Laugh Out Loud
LSHMBB - Laughing So Hard My Belly is Bouncing
LSHMBH - Laughing So Hard My Belly Hurts
LSHTTARDML - Laughing So Hard The Tears Are Running Down My Leg
LTNS - Long Time No See
LTS - Laughing To Self
LUWAMH - Love You With All My Heart
LY - Love Ya
MTF - More To Follow
NRN - No Reply Necessary
NADT - Not A Darn Thing
OIC - Oh, I See
OL - Old Lady (significant other)
OM - Old Man (significant other)
OTOH - On The Other Hand
OTTOMH - Off The Top of My Head
PDS - Please Don't Shoot
PITA - Pain In The A$$
PM - Private Message
PMFJI - Pardon Me For Jumping In
PMP - Peed My Pants
POAHF - Put On A Happy Face
QSL - Reply
QSO - Conversation
QT - Cutie
ROFL - Rolling On Floor Laughing
ROFLAPMP - ROFL And Peeing My Pants
ROFLUTSROFL - Unable to Speak
RTFM - Read The F****** Manual!
SETE - Smiling Ear To Ear
SHID - Slaps Head In Disgust
SNERT - Snot-Nosed Egotistical Rude Teenager
SO - Significant Other
SOT - Short Of Time
SOTMG - Short Of Time Must Go
SWAK - Sealed With A Kiss
SWAS - Scientific Wild A$$ Guess
SWL - Screaming with Laughter
SYS - See You Soon
TA - Thanks Again
TGIF - Thank God It's Friday
TCOY - Take Care Of Yourself
TILII - Tell It Like It Is
TNT - Till Next Time
TOY - Thinking Of You
TTFN - Ta Ta For Now
TTYL - Talk To You Later
WAS - Wild A$$ Guess
WB - Welcome Back
WTH - What/Who The Heck (or sub an 'F' for the 'H')
YBS - You'll Be Sorry
YG - Young Gentleman
YL - Young Lady
YM - Young Man

English Abbreviations and Acronyms

Abbreviations quiz

What are three "invented needs" you cannot live without?

Video: Global Warming and Greenhouse Gases

Global Warming
In this episode we will be looking at ways of brainstorming, taking notes and developing ideas.
Our topic will be global warming and the environment.

Greenhouse GasesIn this episode we will be looking the language of cause and effect by talking about greenhouse gases and global warming.
Plus we will look at the English names of the major countries of the world and their nationalities.

ESL Useful prases: making appointments

Useful phrases for making and changing appointments in english.

Asking to meet

"Are you available on the 17th?"
"Can we meet on the 16th?"
"How does the 3rd sound to you?"
"Are you free next week?"
"Would Friday suit you?"
"Is next Tuesday convenient for you?"
"What about sometime next week?"

Agreeing on a date

"Yes, Thursday is fine."
"Thursday suits me."
"Thursday would be perfect."
Suggesting a different date
"I'm afraid I can't on the 3rd. What about the 6th?"
"I'm sorry, I won't be able to make it on Monday. Could we meet on Tuesday instead?"
"Ah, Wednesday is going to be a little difficult. I'd much prefer Friday, if that's alright with you."
"I really don't think I can on the 17th. Can we meet up on the 19th?"

Setting a time

"What sort of time would suit you?"
"Is 3pm a good time for you?"
"If possible, I'd like to meet in the morning."
"How does 2pm sound to you?"

Changing the arrangement

"You know we were going to meet next Friday? Well, I'm very sorry, but something urgent has come up."
"I'm afraid that I'm not going to be able to meet you after all. Can we fix another time?"
"Something has just cropped up and I won't be able to meet you this afternoon. Can we make another time?"

Video: What Are Your Weaknesses?

Job Interviews: What Are Your Weaknesses?

Job Interviews: What Are Your Weaknesses? : When asking 'What Are Your Weaknesses?' what does your interviewer want to hear?  Rikke Hansen tells VideoJug how best to navigate this question, and give the best possible answer to your interviewer.When asking 'What Are Your Weaknesses?' what does your interviewer want to hear? Rikke Hansen tells VideoJug how best to navigate this question, and give the best possible answer to your interviewer.

  1. Step 1: What They Are Really Asking

    Interpret the questions. What the interviewer really wants to know is what risks they are potentially taking by hiring you. It is also a stress question, and by asking you a stress question they can see how you react when it is thrown at you.

  2. Step 2: What They Don't Want To Hear

    They don't want to hear that you have a huge weakness that can't be corrected under any circumstances, or something that would really negatively impact your performance on the job. They also don't want to hear about a personal trait that has no bearing on the job itself.

  3. Step 3: What They Do Want To Hear

    They do want to hear you being honest about a minor weakness you have, and that you are doing something about it. You should turn the negative into a positive and show that you are not only aware of this weakness, but doing something about it.

Going For An Interview:
Job Interviews: What Are Your Weaknesses?

Useful phrases: organic food

  • There tend to be more vitamines and minerales available in organic food

Useful phrases: My dream house

  • I would like to live in... .
  • My house of dream is ... .
  • There should be a ... .
  • I prefer ... than ... .
  • I want to have a ... .

Video: Organic food

Why is organic food more expensive?

Nutrition & Healthy Eating: Eat for Health (1950s)

Organic Farming Lessens Global Warming

The Secret to Success of Organic Farming

The Secret to Success of Organic Farming

Organic Farming: Can It Feed Us (Part 1)

Health Benefits Of Organic Food

Eat Green:
Health Benefits Of Organic Food

ESL Vocabulary: Organic food in english

Vocabulary food
  1. baby food
  2. fast food
  3. fresh food
  4. frozen food
  5. genetically modified food
  6. organic food
  7. pre-cookea
  8. pre-packed
  9. ready-made
  10. take-away
  11. tinned food
  12. vegetarian food
  13. organic farming
  14. pesticide
  15. fertilizer
  16. healthy food
  17. produce
  18. care
  19. consumer
  20. degenerate
  21. GM crops
  22. fairtrade
  23. agriculture
  24. fields
  25. colrivate
  26. grow
  27. plant
  28. harvest
  29. water
  30. cheap food
  31. chemicals
  32. yield
  33. benefit

Topics: Organic food

Organic farming produces plant and animal foods without the excessive use of chemicals. It focuses on using fertile soil along with a variety of crops to maintain healthy growing conditions which produce a food with more nutrients and less chemicals than typical commercial foods. Organic farming prohibits the growing of GM foods, a controversial issue among commercial growers.

Animals reared on organic farms are treated properly with room to behave like animals and are fed healthy food sources not laden with drugs and other chemicals.

To keep and build good soil structure and fertility:

• recycled and composted crop wastes and animal manures
• the right soil cultivation at the right time
• crop rotation
• green manures and legumes
• mulching on the soil surface
To control pests, diseases and weeds:
• careful planning and crop choice
• the use of resistant crops
• good cultivation practice
• crop rotation
• encouraging useful predators that eat pests
• increasing genetic diversity
• using natural pesticides
Organic farming also involves:
• careful use of water resources
• good animal husbandry

Conventional vs. organic farming

The word "organic" refers to the way farmers grow and process agricultural products, such as fruits, vegetables, grains, dairy products and meat. Organic farming practices are designed to encourage soil and water conservation and reduce pollution. Farmers who grow organic produce and meat don't use conventional methods to fertilize, control weeds or prevent livestock disease. For example, rather than using chemical weedkillers, organic farmers may conduct sophisticated crop rotations and spread mulch or manure to keep weeds at bay.

Conventional farmersOrganic farmers
Apply chemical fertilizers to promote plant growth.Apply natural fertilizers, such as manure or compost, to feed soil and plants.
Spray insecticides to reduce pests and disease.Use beneficial insects and birds, mating disruption or traps to reduce pests and disease.
Use chemical herbicides to manage weeds.Rotate crops, till, hand weed or mulch to manage weeds.
Give animals antibiotics, growth hormones and medications to prevent disease and spur growth.Give animals organic feed and allow them access to the outdoors. Use preventive measures — such as rotational grazing, a balanced diet and clean housing — to help minimize disease.

Organic products typically cost 10 to 40% more than similar conventionally produced products.

Why do we have to eat organic product?

  • Advocates of organic foods claim that it contain more nutrition like 27% more vitamin C, 21.1 % more iron, 29.3% more magnesium, 13.6% more phosphorus, and higher protein. Evidence shows that animals grown with organic feeds are much healthier than those animals grown and fed with conventional feeds, same thing with organic grown vegetable and fruit crops with no synthetic chemicals.
  • Moreover, In Danish research published in 2003, a study showed that organic products contain more flavonoids, a well-known antioxidant defense against any diseases such as cancer and heart disease.
  • The chemical effects of non-organic foods, especially on children, become so alarming, as published in September 2005 issue of Environmental Health Perspectives. The harmful pesticides known as malathion and chlorpyrifos are widely used in agriculture and said to be damaging to neurological development of children. Several researches, using urine samples of children, are conducted to prove the negative effect of these chemicals to them. Parents should be more aware of this fact and take necessary actions to prevent any heath problems that their children might get from non-organic foods.
  • What is even more remarkable is that sustainable organic farming is not only beneficial to us, and to animals and crops, but rather, much more to our environment. An earth friendly method in farming employing nature friendly practices keep chemical off the faming land to protect wild life and water quality with the intention to integrate mechanical, biological, and cultural practices for ecological balance.

IMPORTANT BUYING TIPS: Read food labels very carefully. Take note also of products high in calories, sugar, salt and fats. Check if the products passed the standard of agricultural and food authority.

Consumers may add a little to their budget because the cost is much higher than the usual non-organic products, due to expensive farm practices by not using any harmful synthetic chemicals in farming. But rest assured that your health is much safer with organic products. I only take note of this fact for one reason: your wellbeing is highly important than anything else in this world.

The house of my dream


  1. bathroom
  2. bed
  3. bedroom
  4. chair
  5. couch
  6. cupboard
  7. door
  8. floor
  9. garden
  10. gate
  11. house
  12. key
  13. kitchen
  14. room
  15. stairs
  16. table
  17. wall
  18. window



Your dream home

It's a good idea in the UK to arrange a mortgage with a bank before you start looking. This is when the bank tells you how much money they will lend you so you have a good idea of how much you can afford.

The next step is to go to an estate agent (= a company which represents buyers and sellers of properties) to see what sort of properties they have available in your budget range and in your area. If you see something you like, the estate agent will arrange for you to view the property, so that you can see the house or flat for yourself.

If you see something that takes your eye, you put in an offer. The vendor (seller) can accept or decline this offer, and if the vendor accepts it, you can move forward with the sale. However, as you don't pay any money at this point, the offer isn't legally binding, and in theory, you can pull out of the offer at any time that you like.

Your next step will probably be to get a structural survey done. A qualified surveyor will inspect the house and write a report that illustrates any structural problems, like damp or drainage problems.

If you still want to go ahead with the sale, you need to appoint a solicitor (a lawyer) to do the conveyancing (= the legal paperwork.) If you already own a house, you might also be busy trying to sell it. Many house owners prefer to sell to first time buyers (those people who don't already own a home), as they are not in a chain (=waiting for other people to buy their house before they can buy their next house).

Finally, once the contracts are signed and exchanged, you complete on your house. You get the keys and you can move in whenever you want. Then you might want to throw a house-warming party. Congratulations!

My Dream of a Round House

So I've got this idea that I'm going to build a house someday, and it's going to be a round house. I've been investigating dome houses, EarthShips, yurts and tipis as part of my research, and thought I'd share it with you.

My latest interests are mobile micro-houses, sometimes just called "tiny houses" but I'm also fascinated by cob and Earthbag houses. I guess it's going to depend if my family finds land to own... or not.

Please let me know what you thought of this lens by rating it.

Dream House

The topic of my talk is my dream house. As an introduction to my talk I want to say that I feel fine in our house, but everyone wants to live better, I think.
Firstly, I’d like to tell you about lifestyle of living in a city and living in a country. The townies are more private people than the villager. Often the peoples, who live in the city, know their neighbours just by sight. The living in a city is good, because there is a good service, many workplaces. In a city there are many positions to spend leisure. I want to live far away from a city noise and polluted air, so the city is the malodorous living place for me. In the country the people are outgoing and they know each other. Furthermore there is much space and a nice nature. But I don’t want to live in a small country, because there is a service bad, there’s no nightlife. I think, that a suburb is the best living place for me, because it’s a compromise between living in a city and living in the country.
Secondly, I’ d like to tell you about the surrounding of my premise. I’d like to live near by the river or the lake. The neighbourhood is important part of the living place, so I want, that my neighbours would be outgoing, good- tempered and cooperative persons.
Thirdly, I'd like to tell you, how my house will look. I’d like to live in a two – stored wooden detached house, because there would be much space. I think it’s enough to have two bedrooms, a nursery, a bathroom, a toilet, a kitchen, a study and a sitting- room. I want to have and an athletic room, because I like sports and a bathhouse. In my house would be ancient furniture. In a sitting- room the walls and the floor would be wooden. I want to have a fireplace there. In my opinion, it would give cosiness. There I ‘d like to see a television, a bookcase, a sofa and a coffee table. The windows would be curtained. I don’t like crowded rooms, so in my house there wouldn’t be a lot of furniture. I think that everything look wonderful if the house is tidy.
Fourthly, I’d like to tell you about one of the advantages of a detached- house. It’s environment. I like plants, so there would be many plants in my premise. It would be paled with hedge. There would be a plain gate. I can’t imagine my environment without a lawn and the flower- beds. I like to be out, so I want to have a wooden table and the seats in my yard. I want to have a little kitchen garden and a little orchard, paled with a wooden fence.
Finally, I’d like to tell you about the maintenance of my house. I think that house maintenance costs less than a flat maintenance, because in a house there are fewer amenities for which we must to pay than in the flat. It’ s electricity and cold water. The heating isn’t central, so we must to pay just for a firing. Well, the maintenance of my house will cost about 350 litas per month.
I’d like to finish by saying that if you want to have your dream house, you must work hard and have enough money to realise your dreams. I hope I have my dream house maybe it won’t be such as I want, but I would be very happy to have a home although of one’s own.

Vocabulary links

Vocabulary links

A visit to a museum


  1. exhibit
  2. exhibition
  3. docent: a voluntary worker who acts as a guide in a museum, art gallery, etc
  4. curator: a keeper or custodian of a museum or other collection
  5. artefact/artifact: an object that was made a long time ago and is historically important, for example a tool or weapon
  6. gallery: a room or building for the display or sale of works of art
  7. display case : a case, made all or partly of glass, for displaying items in a shop or museum for observation or inspection
  8. permanent and temporary exhibits
  9. donation, purchase, or on loan
  10. antique
  11. Archaeologist: a scientist who seeks to understand past human cultures by careful study of the artifacts and other evidence from archaeological sites.
  12. Archaeology: a method for studying past human cultures based on material evidence (artifacts and sites).
  13. Artifact: any object made, modified, or used by humans; usually this term refers to a portable item.
  14. Culture: the set of learned beliefs, values, styles, and behaviors generally shared by members of a society or group.
  15. History: the study of past events and cultures using written records, oral traditions, and archaeological evidence as sources of information.
  16. Prehistory: the period of human experience prior to written records; in the Americas, prehistory refers to the period before Europeans and their writing systems arrived, covering at least 12,000 years.
  17. Site: a place where human activities occurred and material evidence of these activities was left.
  18. Sculpture
  19. Painting
  20. Arms and Armour
  21. Ceramics
  22. Furnitur
  23. Jewellery
  24. Textile
  25. Costume
  26. Consist of
  27. Are represented
  28. Painted vases
  29. Gobelins
  30. Span
  31. Canvases
  32. Eminent
  33. Tapestry
  34. Weapons
  35. Pottery
  36. Porcelain
  37. I’d like = I would like
  38. Consist of
  39. Are represented
  40. Painted vases
  41. Coach
  42. Gobelins
  43. Span
  44. Canvases
  45. Eminent
  46. Tapestry
  47. In conclusion I’d like to stress that
A visit to a museum.
• Why do some children think museums are boring?
• What can be done to make museums more interesting?
• Why is it important to learn about the past?
• Who do you think should really own important historical objects?


Rules for visitors of the Museum of Antropology and Ethnography (Kunstkamera) (extract)

  • The entrance to the Museum for individual visitors is by tickets perchased at the ticket office of the Museum.
  • The tickets to the Museum are valid for 30 minutes after purchasing.
  • The purchase of tickets at the Museum ticket office by any person more than once during a day is forbidden.
  • Overcoats, bags, are to be left at the cloakrooms.
  • Photo and video are allowed by special tickets.
  • At the exposition “First natural sciences collections of Kunstkamera” photo and video are strictly prohibited.

In order to save the unique anatomy collections it is forbidden:

  • to guide excursions without an authorized license;
  • to use mobile phones;
  • to touch artifacts, to spoil and tear off labels, exhibition texts, information stands and arrows;
  • to smoke at the Museum building;
  • to bring beverages.


Your Museum Visit


History of the First Russian Museum

In autumn 1714, Peter the Great gave an order to doctor Robert Areskin to move his personal collections and library from Moscow to the new capital and begin work on the creation of the first state public museum – the Kunstkamera. The collections, consisting of “fish, reptiles and insects in bottles”, mathematical, physics and chemistry instruments, and also books from the Tsar’s library, were put in Peter’s Summer Palace.

For Peter the Great, it was extremely important to create an image of a changing Russia. The emperor had the habit of receiving ambassadors in his museum, and a tour of the museum was part of the visit programme for all important guests.

The first public exhibition of the Kunstkamera was opened in 1719 in the “Kikin chambers” – the confiscated home of the disgraced boyar A. Kikin. At this time, it was also decided to build a special building. Peter chose the location for the Kunstkamera himself in the centre of the capital.

In December 1726, collections began to be brought to the new building of the museum. According to a report from the newspaper “Sankt-Peterburgskie vedemosti” on 26 November 1728, “yesterday the imperial library with the kunst and natural camera were opened after they were brought to the new academic chambers”. The working days of the library and kunstkamera were reported, and also the fact that entry to them was free. Peter believed that “enthusiasts should be taught and entertained, instead of taking money from them.”

After the division of the Kunstkamera in the 1830s into a number of independent museums and the creation of the Ethnographical and Anatomical Museums, and later (in 1878) the Museum of Anthropology and Ethnography, its main exhibitions were dedicated to the culture and traditions of the peoples of the world. For many decades, an important part of our museum was also the memorial Cabinet of Emperor Peter I.

With the addition of the Museum wing to the Kunstkamera building in the 1870s-80s, the area of the permanent exhibits significantly increased. In 1891, new exhibitions were opened, which represented collections on the traditional culture of peoples of the world, following the geographical principle (Russia, Asia, Africa, Australia and America). Along with the “ethnographic” department, such exhibitions as the “anthropological department” and the “department of prehistoric Stone age artefacts” were created. After the creation of the Ethnographic department of the Russian Museum (now the Russian ethnographic museum) at the beginning of the 20th century, the ethnography of peoples of distant countries and continents has been traditionally displayed at our museum.

The formation of the ethnographic funds of the museum in the second half of the 18th-early 19th century is connected with the names of leading Russian scholars and travellers: G.I. Langsdorf, Yu.F. Lisyansky, F.P. Litke, P.S. Pallas and others. In the 19th-20th century the museum received collections from I.G. Voznesenskii, N.N. Miklukho-Maklay, V.V. Junker, V.K. Arsen’ev, N.S. Gumilev and many others. Furthermore, the collection also acquired items from renowned European travellers such as J. Cook, I.F. Van Overmeer-Fissher, L. Frobenius and others.

The last museum I enjoyed with my daughter had the most interesting benches in each room. Each was different, and they were works of art in themselves. So there is more than even the art in the gallery to enjoy!


I'd like to tell you about the Hermitage Gallery, one of the largest and well known museums in the world. Two months ago together with my classmates I was on an exersion in S. Petersburg. I visited many places of interest including the Hermitage Gallery.I was greatly impressed by visiting this museum of art. It was founded in 1764 by Ecatherine the Second when she bought 225 pictures in Berlin . Now the Hermitage consists of five buildings.

Now I'd like to tell you about pictures, sculptures and other works of art I've seen in the Hermitage Gallery. A great number of wonderful pictures are offered there. Everyone can find some kind of pictures to enjoy, for example the pictures by the world's greatest masters: Michelangelo, Raphael, Rembrands, Rubens and many others. All great schools of paintings are represented there:Italian, Spanish, German etc.

A few words about sculptures. I saw a lot of vases, staues and fountains. The most beautiful thing I have ever seen was the fauntain belonged to Alexander the Second.

Among other outstanding peices of art I saw the coach of Ecatherine the Second and beautiful gobelens. It took 60 years to made one of these gobelens.

In conclusion I'd like to stress that no one can see everything for the one visit. To enjoy the Hermitage Gallery you must visit it several times.

The State Hermitage in St Petrsburg is one of the world's most outstanding art museums. It is the largest fine arts museum in Russia.

World famour is the collection of West-European paintings covering a span of about seven hundreds years, from the 13th to the 20th centure, and comprising works by Leonardo da Vinci, Raphael, Titian, El |Greco. Velasquez, Murillo; outstanding paintings by Rembrandt, Va -Dyck, Rubens; a remarkable group of French 18th-centure canvases, and Impressionist and Post Impressionist paintings. The collection illustrates the art of Italy, Spain, Holland, Belgium, Germany, Austria, France, Britain, Sweden, Denmark, Finland and some other countries. The West-European Department also includes a fine collectin of European sculpture, containing works by Michelangelo, Canova, Falconet, Houdon, Rodin and many other eminent masters. The Hermitage, together with the Pushkin Fine Arts Museum in Moscow, must be ranked among the richest in the world in respect of Impressionist art.

In addition to the works of Western masters, the Hermitage has sections devoted to the arts of India, China, Ancient Egypt, Mesopotamia, Pre-|Columbian America, Greece and Rome, as well as a department of prehistoric art, not to mention a section devoted to Scythian art. People come to admire the collections of tapestry, precious textiles, weapons, ivories, pottery, porcelain and furniture as well.

The British Museum

The British Museum is a museum in London, founded in 1753. It contains one of the world's richest collections of antiquities and (until 1997) one of the largest libraries in the world: British Library.

The British Museum's collection of seven million objects representing the rich history of human cultures mirrors the city of London's global variety. It includes monuments of primitive and antique culture, Ancient East culture, the richest collection of engravings, pictures, ceramics, coins.

The British Museum library is now named the British national library. It was formed in 1973 from the British Museum library and other national collections. It has a copy of every book that is printed in the English language, so that there are more than six million books there. They receive nearly two thousand books and papers daily. The British Museum Library has a very big collection of printed books and manuscripts, both old and new. You can see beautifully illustrated old manuscripts which they keep in glass cases. You can also find there some of the first English books printed by Caxton. Caxton was a printer who lived in the fifteenth century. He made the first printing-press in England. In the reading-room of the British Museum many famous men have read and studied. Charles Dickens, a very popular English writer and the author of 'David Copperfield', 'Oliver Twist', 'Dombey and Son' and other books, spent a lot of time in the British Museum Library.

In no other museum can the visitor see so clearly the history of what it is to be human.

Visiting a museum.

There are a lot of historical and art museums and galleries in St.-Petersburg. I’d like to tell you about the Hermitage, one of the largest and well-known museums in the world. It was founded in 1764 by Catherine the Second when she bought 225 pictures in Berlin. Now the Hermitage consists of five buildings. Now I’d like to tell you about pictures, sculptures and other works of art I’ve seen in the Hermitage Gallery. A great number of wonderful pictures are situated there. Everyone can find some kind of pictures to enjoy, for example, the pictures by the world’s greatest masters: Michelangelo, Raphael, Rembrandts, Rubens and many others. All great schools of paintings are represented there: Italian, Spanish, and German etc.
A few words about sculptures. There are a lot of vases and statues in the Hermitage Gallery. Most of all I like antique statues, for example, statue of Aphrodite, and wonderful painted vases from ancient Greece. Among other outstanding works of art I saw the coach of Catherine the Second and beautiful gobelins. The collection of West-European paintings has the worldwide fame. It covers a span of about seven hundred years, from the 13th to the 20th centuries, and comprise works by Leonardo da Vinci, Raphael, Titian, Velasques, outstanding paintings by Rembrandt, Vandyke, Rubens; a remarkable group of French 18-centure canvases, and Impressionist and Post Impression paintings. My favorite hall there is devoted to works by Paul Gogen, famous French artist. Most of his bright paintings are about nature and people of Oceania. One of them, ”The woman holding a fruit”, is my favorite because of original beauty of Maori woman and image of unusual, exotic nature. The West-European collection illustrates the art of Italy, Spain, Germany, France, Britain, Holland and some other countries. The West-European Department also includes the fine collection of European sculpture containing works by Michelangelo, Falconet, Rodin and many other eminent masters. In addition to the works of Western masters, the Hermitage has sections devoted to the arts of India, China, Ancient Egypt, Greece and Rome. Also visitors come to admire the collection of tapestry, weapons, pottery, porcelain and furniture.
A lot of tourists visit the Hermitage every day. In conclusion I’d like to stress that no one can see everything for one visit. To enjoy the whole Hermitage Gallery you should visit it several times.

Business Opportunities: Student's Book

Business Opportunities: Student's Book

192 pages | Publisher: Oxford University Press | January 5, 1995 | English | ISBN-10: 0194520285 | PDF | MP3 | 68MB | 50MB
Business Opportunities provides opportunities for practicing language in a range of professional situations, while offering opportunities to practice all four language skills, especially listening and speaking.
For intermediate level students.