Dunning-Kruger effect

How many people do you now with Dunning-Kruger effect? :-)

The Dunning–Kruger effect is a cognitive bias in which unskilled individuals suffer from illusory superiority, mistakenly rating their ability much higher than is accurate. This bias is attributed to ametacognitive inability of the unskilled to recognize their ineptitude.[1] Actual competence may weaken self-confidence, as competent individuals may falsely assume that others have an equivalent understanding.

David Dunning and Justin Kruger of Cornell University conclude, "the miscalibration of the incompetent stems from an error about the self, whereas the miscalibration of the highly competent stems from an error about others".


ESL: Fall down Fall in

Using of Fall down, fall over, fall off, fall out of, fall into, fall in

ESL writing: comparisons and contrasts

Comparisons and contrasts

Words commonly used to express comparison include:

  • like 
  • similar 
  • as
  • same 
  • in the same way 
  • too
  • both 
  • most important 
  • have in common
  • the same as s
  • imilarly 
  • as well as
Words commonly used to express contrast include:

  • although 
  • yet 
  • whereas
  • however 
  • but 
  • while
  • differ 
  • instead 
  • unless
  • unlike 
  • on the contrary 
  • contrary to
  • even 
  • though 
  • on the other hand 
  • the reverse
  • despite / in spite of
  • in contrast (to) / in comparison

 X is considerably   
a great deal
(very) much
a little
only just
 X is exactly
more or less
     the same as ...
 X is not      exactly
     the same as ...
 X is totally
 different from Y. X is not quite so/as big

 X and Y are    different
  in every way/respect.

Comparison Structure Words and Phrases
  • London is the financial heart of Great Britain. Similarly, Istanbul is the center of banking and finance in Turkey.
  • A dog park has a fence where people and their dogs can play together. Similarly, a dog run is a small fenced area that is often located within an existing park.
  • The streets in Istanbul are similar to the ones in Athens.
  • New York and Tokyo are similar to each other in several aspects.
  • Athens and Istanbul are similar in that they are both densely populated.
  • There are some striking similarities between the two cities.
  • London is the cultural capital of Great Britain. Likewise, Istanbul is the center of music, culture and art in Turkey.
  • Istanbul and Athens are equally noisy.
  • Not only Tokyoites but also New Yorkers dress fashionably.
  • Both New York and Tokyo have many international restaurants.
  • The two cities have both positive and negative features.
  • Both PCs and Apple Macs can use Microsoft office.
  • London is the financial heart of Great Britain. Istanbul is an important center of banking and finance, too.
  • Tokyo is a center of fashion, and New York is, too.
  • Laser printers and inkjet printers require good quality paper to work well.
  • The subway system in New York is the same as the one in Tokyo.
  • Hand soap and liquid soap both work in the same way.
  • Olive oil works in the same way as some anti-inflammatory drugs.
  • The streets in Istanbul and Athens are alike.
  • Like Tokyo, New York is an important center of fashion.
  • Like a PC, a Mac is easy to use.
  • An LCD TV is like an LCD monitor.
  • My sister, like my cousin, wears glasses.
  • Like my cousin, my sister wears glasses.
  • My sister, just like my cousin, wears glasses.
  • Just like my cousin, my sister wears glasses.
  • Tokyo is densely populated and noisy just like New York.
  • Athens is densely populated and noisy just as Istanbul is.
  • Istanbul has traffic problems just as Athens does.
  • The new $1000 Canon 5D is comparable to $9000 professional video equipment in performance.
Contrast Structure Words and Phrases

  • Dogs eat a mix of raw and cooked food, but cats mostly eat raw food.
  • Tahiti is a common destination for “extreme” sport enthusiasts. Yet, Laos is actually a more suitable location.
  • Rock music is often very fast; however, folk music is usually very slow.
  • Although men are often considered better at “hard” science subjects like physics and 
  • mathematics, women often graduate with higher grade point averages.
  • Although Havana is a city which is popular with tourists, Rio is much more popular.
  • Even though men in China smoke a higher number of cigarettes, they have lower levels of cancer than European males.
  • Though the Pc and the Mac can both perform the same functions, the Mac is much faster.
  • Flash discs have no moving parts unlike hard drives.
  • Unlike cats, dogs are social or group animals.
  • Facilities provided in prison hospitals are not like those provided in regular hospitals.
  • Facilities provided in state universities are not the same as those provided in private universities.
  • Eastern and Western students are dissimilar in their expectations of university.
  • Istanbul is completely different from Berlin.
  • A laptop computer is different from a desktop computer because it is smaller and more compact.
  • Istanbul and Berlin are different in terms of population and location.
  • Istanbul and Berlin differ in that the former is a big city while the latter is small.
  • There is a big difference between the applicants in terms of experience.
  • In contrast to John, who is a liberal, Bill is a conservative.
  • Microsoft Office costs about £100 in contrast to Open Office which is free.
  • Contrary to popular belief, large dogs are less aggressive than small dogs.
  • London Heathrow airport is very busy compared to / with Berlin International.
  • A laser printer is cheap to run compared to / with an inkjet.
  • In comparison with other European countries, house prices in the UK are very high.
  • He was a loud friendly man. In comparison, his brother was rather shy.
  • Some people like to exercise indoors, while / whereas others prefer to exercise outdoors.
  • While / Whereas going on holiday to a beach resort offers many opportunities for relaxation and sport, a city break offers many cultural activities.In Rugby most injuries are related to the neck; on the other hand, football injuries are most often related to the feet and legs.